Linked to EAHP Statements:
Section 2: Selection, procurement and distribution
Section 3: Production and compounding
Section 5: Patient safety and Quality Assurance
ACPE UAN: 0475-0000-16-015-L04-P. A knowledge based activity.
About 40% of medication errors happen in the drug preparation and administration phase, making it one of the most critical processes on the ward. In addition, these are very time consuming processes for nursing staff resulting in less time for direct patient-care.
Reducing the risk of medication errors and freeing up nursing time to care can be achieved by dispensing the medication from the hospital pharmacy in the most ready to use form: a scannable single dose for solids and a scannable syringe or infusion bag for injectables.
In a world where new technology is increasingly becoming more available there are many opportunities to link electronic prescribing to automated dispensing systems for medication and bedside scanning prior to administration. But not every automated system or every distribution system is appropriate for all hospitals. Based on a risk analysis approach while keeping the final objectives in mind, choices have to be made. After implementation of the new distribution system the process should be reviewed for new pitfalls and further optimisation.
Standardisation and centralisation of compounding in the hospital pharmacy (also known as CIVA(S ) or central intravenous admixture services ) is essential in order to achieve the quality level as required by PICs and GMP guidelines. And again the hospital pharmacist should think of out of the box approaches to introduce creative solutions such as dose banding, freezing, pre-connected systems, compounding robots or even outsourcing to colleagues or commercial compounding units.
• To identify the risks and opportunities associated with different ways of dispensing medication;
• To describe the different types of automation;
• To share the vision on quality compounding and to show creative solutions.
• to evaluate new techniques for dispensing appropriate to their needs;
• to devise out of the box approaches to supply chain management and compounding.
Keywords: medication errors, bar codes (scannable), automation.